This page explains how to use the Storage API for users who are experts in ScalarDB.

One of the keys to achieving storage-agnostic or database-agnostic ACID transactions on top of existing storage and database systems is the storage abstraction capabilities that ScalarDB provides. Storage abstraction defines a data model and the APIs (Storage API) that issue operations on the basis of the data model.

Although you will likely use the Transactional API in most cases, another option is to use the Storage API.

The benefits of using the Storage API include the following:

  • As with the Transactional API, you can write your application code without worrying too much about the underlying storage implementation.
  • If you don’t need transactions for some of the data in your application, you can use the Storage API to partially avoid transactions, which results in faster execution.

Attention

Directly using the Storage API or mixing the Transactional API and the Storage API could cause unexpected behavior. For example, since the Storage API cannot provide transaction capability, the API could cause anomalies or data inconsistency if failures occur when executing operations.

Therefore, you should be very careful about using the Storage API and use it only if you know exactly what you are doing.

Storage API Example

This section explains how the Storage API can be used in a basic electronic money application.

Attention

The electronic money application is simplified for this example and isn’t suitable for a production environment.

ScalarDB configuration

Before you begin, you should configure ScalarDB in the same way mentioned in Getting Started with ScalarDB.

With that in mind, this Storage API example assumes that the configuration file scalardb.properties exists.

Set up the database schema

You need to define the database schema (the method in which the data will be organized) in the application. For details about the supported data types, see Data type mapping between ScalarDB and other databases.

For this example, create a file named emoney-storage.json in the scalardb/docs/getting-started directory. Then, add the following JSON code to define the schema.

Note

In the following JSON, the transaction field is set to false, which indicates that you should use this table with the Storage API.

{
  "emoney.account": {
    "transaction": false,
    "partition-key": [
      "id"
    ],
    "clustering-key": [],
    "columns": {
      "id": "TEXT",
      "balance": "INT"
    }
  }
}

To apply the schema, go to the ScalarDB Releases page and download the ScalarDB Schema Loader that matches the version of ScalarDB that you are using to the getting-started folder.

Then, run the following command, replacing <VERSION> with the version of the ScalarDB Schema Loader that you downloaded:

$ java -jar scalardb-schema-loader-<VERSION>.jar --config scalardb.properties -f emoney-storage.json

Example code

The following is example source code for the electronic money application that uses the Storage API.

Attention

As previously mentioned, since the Storage API cannot provide transaction capability, the API could cause anomalies or data inconsistency if failures occur when executing operations. Therefore, you should be very careful about using the Storage API and use it only if you know exactly what you are doing.

public class ElectronicMoney {

  private static final String SCALARDB_PROPERTIES =
      System.getProperty("user.dir") + File.separator + "scalardb.properties";
  private static final String NAMESPACE = "emoney";
  private static final String TABLENAME = "account";
  private static final String ID = "id";
  private static final String BALANCE = "balance";

  private final DistributedStorage storage;

  public ElectronicMoney() throws IOException {
    StorageFactory factory = StorageFactory.create(SCALARDB_PROPERTIES);
    storage = factory.getStorage();
  }

  public void charge(String id, int amount) throws ExecutionException {
    // Retrieve the current balance for id
    Get get =
        Get.newBuilder()
            .namespace(NAMESPACE)
            .table(TABLENAME)
            .partitionKey(Key.ofText(ID, id))
            .build();
    Optional<Result> result = storage.get(get);

    // Calculate the balance
    int balance = amount;
    if (result.isPresent()) {
      int current = result.get().getInt(BALANCE);
      balance += current;
    }

    // Update the balance
    Put put =
        Put.newBuilder()
            .namespace(NAMESPACE)
            .table(TABLENAME)
            .partitionKey(Key.ofText(ID, id))
            .intValue(BALANCE, balance)
            .build();
    storage.put(put);
  }

  public void pay(String fromId, String toId, int amount) throws ExecutionException {
    // Retrieve the current balances for ids
    Get fromGet =
        Get.newBuilder()
            .namespace(NAMESPACE)
            .table(TABLENAME)
            .partitionKey(Key.ofText(ID, fromId))
            .build();
    Get toGet =
        Get.newBuilder()
            .namespace(NAMESPACE)
            .table(TABLENAME)
            .partitionKey(Key.ofText(ID, toId))
            .build();
    Optional<Result> fromResult = storage.get(fromGet);
    Optional<Result> toResult = storage.get(toGet);

    // Calculate the balances (it assumes that both accounts exist)
    int newFromBalance = fromResult.get().getInt(BALANCE) - amount;
    int newToBalance = toResult.get().getInt(BALANCE) + amount;
    if (newFromBalance < 0) {
      throw new RuntimeException(fromId + " doesn't have enough balance.");
    }

    // Update the balances
    Put fromPut =
        Put.newBuilder()
            .namespace(NAMESPACE)
            .table(TABLENAME)
            .partitionKey(Key.ofText(ID, fromId))
            .intValue(BALANCE, newFromBalance)
            .build();
    Put toPut =
        Put.newBuilder()
            .namespace(NAMESPACE)
            .table(TABLENAME)
            .partitionKey(Key.ofText(ID, toId))
            .intValue(BALANCE, newToBalance)
            .build();
    storage.put(fromPut);
    storage.put(toPut);
  }

  public int getBalance(String id) throws ExecutionException {
    // Retrieve the current balances for id
    Get get =
        Get.newBuilder()
            .namespace(NAMESPACE)
            .table(TABLENAME)
            .partitionKey(Key.ofText(ID, id))
            .build();
    Optional<Result> result = storage.get(get);

    int balance = -1;
    if (result.isPresent()) {
      balance = result.get().getInt(BALANCE);
    }
    return balance;
  }

  public void close() {
    storage.close();
  }
}

Storage API guide

The Storage API is composed of the Administrative API and CRUD API.

Administrative API

You can execute administrative operations programmatically as described in this section.

Note

Another method that you could use to execute administrative operations is by using Schema Loader.

Get a DistributedStorageAdmin instance

To execute administrative operations, you first need to get a DistributedStorageAdmin instance. You can obtain the DistributedStorageAdmin instance from StorageFactory as follows:

StorageFactory storageFactory = StorageFactory.create("<CONFIGURATION_FILE_PATH>");
DistributedStorageAdmin admin = storageFactory.getStorageAdmin();

For details about configurations, see ScalarDB Configurations.

After you have executed all administrative operations, you should close the DistributedStorageAdmin instance as follows:

admin.close();

Create a namespace

Before creating tables, namespaces must be created since a table belongs to one namespace.

You can create a namespace as follows:

// Create the namespace "ns". If the namespace already exists, an exception will be thrown.
admin.createNamespace("ns");

// Create the namespace only if it does not already exist.
boolean ifNotExists = true;
admin.createNamespace("ns", ifNotExists);

// Create the namespace with options.
Map<String, String> options = ...;
admin.createNamespace("ns", options);

For details about creation options, see Creation options.

Create a table

When creating a table, you should define the table metadata and then create the table.

To define the table metadata, you can use TableMetadata. The following shows how to define the columns, partition key, clustering key including clustering orders, and secondary indexes of a table:

// Define the table metadata.
TableMetadata tableMetadata =
    TableMetadata.newBuilder()
        .addColumn("c1", DataType.INT)
        .addColumn("c2", DataType.TEXT)
        .addColumn("c3", DataType.BIGINT)
        .addColumn("c4", DataType.FLOAT)
        .addColumn("c5", DataType.DOUBLE)
        .addPartitionKey("c1")
        .addClusteringKey("c2", Scan.Ordering.Order.DESC)
        .addClusteringKey("c3", Scan.Ordering.Order.ASC)
        .addSecondaryIndex("c4")
        .build();

For details about the data model of ScalarDB, see Data Model.

Then, create a table as follows:

// Create the table "ns.tbl". If the table already exists, an exception will be thrown.
admin.createTable("ns", "tbl", tableMetadata);

// Create the table only if it does not already exist.
boolean ifNotExists = true;
admin.createTable("ns", "tbl", tableMetadata, ifNotExists);

// Create the table with options.
Map<String, String> options = ...;
admin.createTable("ns", "tbl", tableMetadata, options);

Create a secondary index

You can create a secondary index as follows:

// Create a secondary index on column "c5" for table "ns.tbl". If a secondary index already exists, an exception will be thrown.
admin.createIndex("ns", "tbl", "c5");

// Create the secondary index only if it does not already exist.
boolean ifNotExists = true;
admin.createIndex("ns", "tbl", "c5", ifNotExists);

// Create the secondary index with options.
Map<String, String> options = ...;
admin.createIndex("ns", "tbl", "c5", options);

Truncate a table

You can truncate a table as follows:

// Truncate the table "ns.tbl".
admin.truncateTable("ns", "tbl");

Drop a secondary index

You can drop a secondary index as follows:

// Drop the secondary index on column "c5" from table "ns.tbl". If the secondary index does not exist, an exception will be thrown.
admin.dropIndex("ns", "tbl", "c5");

// Drop the secondary index only if it exists.
boolean ifExists = true;
admin.dropIndex("ns", "tbl", "c5", ifExists);

Drop a table

You can drop a table as follows:

// Drop the table "ns.tbl". If the table does not exist, an exception will be thrown.
admin.dropTable("ns", "tbl");

// Drop the table only if it exists.
boolean ifExists = true;
admin.dropTable("ns", "tbl", ifExists);

Drop a namespace

You can drop a namespace as follows:

// Drop the namespace "ns". If the namespace does not exist, an exception will be thrown.
admin.dropNamespace("ns");

// Drop the namespace only if it exists.
boolean ifExists = true;
admin.dropNamespace("ns", ifExists);

Get table metadata

You can get table metadata as follows:

// Get the table metadata for "ns.tbl".
TableMetadata tableMetadata = admin.getTableMetadata("ns", "tbl");

Repair a table

You can repair the table metadata of an existing table as follows:

// Repair the table "ns.tbl" with options.
TableMetadata tableMetadata =
    TableMetadata.newBuilder()
        ...
        .build();
Map<String, String> options = ...;
admin.repairTable("ns", "tbl", tableMetadata, options);

Implement CRUD operations

The following sections describe CRUD operations.

Get a DistributedStorage instance

To execute CRUD operations in the Storage API, you need to get a DistributedStorage instance.

You can get an instance as follows:

StorageFactory storageFactory = StorageFactory.create("<CONFIGURATION_FILE_PATH>");
DistributedStorage storage = storageFactory.getStorage();

After you have executed all CRUD operations, you should close the DistributedStorage instance as follows:

storage.close();

Get operation

Get is an operation to retrieve a single record specified by a primary key.

You need to create a Get object first, and then you can execute the object by using the storage.get() method as follows:

// Create a `Get` operation.
Key partitionKey = Key.ofInt("c1", 10);
Key clusteringKey = Key.of("c2", "aaa", "c3", 100L);

Get get =
    Get.newBuilder()
        .namespace("ns")
        .table("tbl")
        .partitionKey(partitionKey)
        .clusteringKey(clusteringKey)
        .projections("c1", "c2", "c3", "c4")
        .build();

// Execute the `Get` operation.
Optional<Result> result = storage.get(get);

You can also specify projections to choose which columns are returned.

For details about how to construct Key objects, see Key construction. And, for details about how to handle Result objects, see Handle Result objects.

Specify a consistency level

You can specify a consistency level in each operation (Get, Scan, Put, and Delete) in the Storage API as follows:

Get get =
    Get.newBuilder()
        .namespace("ns")
        .table("tbl")
        .partitionKey(partitionKey)
        .clusteringKey(clusteringKey)
        .consistency(Consistency.LINEARIZABLE) // Consistency level
        .build();

The following table describes the three consistency levels:

Consistency level Description
SEQUENTIAL Sequential consistency assumes that the underlying storage implementation makes all operations appear to take effect in some sequential order and the operations of each individual process appear in this sequence.
EVENTUAL Eventual consistency assumes that the underlying storage implementation makes all operations take effect eventually.
LINEARIZABLE Linearizable consistency assumes that the underlying storage implementation makes each operation appear to take effect atomically at some point between its invocation and completion.
Execute Get by using a secondary index

You can execute a Get operation by using a secondary index.

Instead of specifying a partition key, you can specify an index key (indexed column) to use a secondary index as follows:

// Create a `Get` operation by using a secondary index.
Key indexKey = Key.ofFloat("c4", 1.23F);

Get get =
    Get.newBuilder()
        .namespace("ns")
        .table("tbl")
        .indexKey(indexKey)
        .projections("c1", "c2", "c3", "c4")
        .build();

// Execute the `Get` operation.
Optional<Result> result = storage.get(get);

Note

If the result has more than one record, storage.get() will throw an exception.

Scan operation

Scan is an operation to retrieve multiple records within a partition. You can specify clustering-key boundaries and orderings for clustering-key columns in Scan operations.

You need to create a Scan object first, and then you can execute the object by using the storage.scan() method as follows:

// Create a `Scan` operation.
Key partitionKey = Key.ofInt("c1", 10);
Key startClusteringKey = Key.of("c2", "aaa", "c3", 100L);
Key endClusteringKey = Key.of("c2", "aaa", "c3", 300L);

Scan scan =
    Scan.newBuilder()
        .namespace("ns")
        .table("tbl")
        .partitionKey(partitionKey)
        .start(startClusteringKey)
        .end(endClusteringKey)
        .projections("c1", "c2", "c3", "c4")
        .orderings(Scan.Ordering.desc("c2"), Scan.Ordering.asc("c3"))
        .limit(10)
        .build();

// Execute the `Scan` operation.
Scanner scanner = storage.scan(scan);

You can omit the clustering-key boundaries or specify either a start boundary or an end boundary. If you don’t specify orderings, you will get results ordered by the clustering order that you defined when creating the table.

In addition, you can specify projections to choose which columns are returned and use limit to specify the number of records to return in Scan operations.

Handle Scanner objects

A Scan operation in the Storage API returns a Scanner object.

If you want to get results one by one from the Scanner object, you can use the one() method as follows:

Optional<Result> result = scanner.one();

Or, if you want to get a list of all results, you can use the all() method as follows:

List<Result> results = scanner.all();

In addition, since Scanner implements Iterable, you can use Scanner in a for-each loop as follows:

for (Result result : scanner) {
    ...
}

Remember to close the Scanner object after getting the results:

scanner.close();

Or you can use try-with-resources as follows:

try (Scanner scanner = storage.scan(scan)) {
  ...
}
Execute Scan by using a secondary index

You can execute a Scan operation by using a secondary index.

Instead of specifying a partition key, you can specify an index key (indexed column) to use a secondary index as follows:

// Create a `Scan` operation by using a secondary index.
Key indexKey = Key.ofFloat("c4", 1.23F);

Scan scan =
    Scan.newBuilder()
        .namespace("ns")
        .table("tbl")
        .indexKey(indexKey)
        .projections("c1", "c2", "c3", "c4")
        .limit(10)
        .build();

// Execute the `Scan` operation.
Scanner scanner = storage.scan(scan);

Note

You can’t specify clustering-key boundaries and orderings in Scan by using a secondary index.

Execute Scan without specifying a partition key to retrieve all the records of a table

You can execute a Scan operation without specifying a partition key.

Instead of calling the partitionKey() method in the builder, you can call the all() method to scan a table without specifying a partition key as follows:

// Create a `Scan` operation without specifying a partition key.
Key partitionKey = Key.ofInt("c1", 10);
Key startClusteringKey = Key.of("c2", "aaa", "c3", 100L);
Key endClusteringKey = Key.of("c2", "aaa", "c3", 300L);

Scan scan =
    Scan.newBuilder()
        .namespace("ns")
        .table("tbl")
        .all()
        .projections("c1", "c2", "c3", "c4")
        .limit(10)
        .build();

// Execute the `Scan` operation.
Scanner scanner = storage.scan(scan);

Note

You can’t specify clustering-key boundaries and orderings in Scan without specifying a partition key.

Put operation

Put is an operation to put a record specified by a primary key. The operation behaves as an upsert operation for a record, in which the operation updates the record if the record exists or inserts the record if the record does not exist.

You need to create a Put object first, and then you can execute the object by using the storage.put() method as follows:

// Create a `Put` operation.
Key partitionKey = Key.ofInt("c1", 10);
Key clusteringKey = Key.of("c2", "aaa", "c3", 100L);

Put put =
    Put.newBuilder()
        .namespace("ns")
        .table("tbl")
        .partitionKey(partitionKey)
        .clusteringKey(clusteringKey)
        .floatValue("c4", 1.23F)
        .doubleValue("c5", 4.56)
        .build();

// Execute the `Put` operation.
storage.put(put);

You can also put a record with null values as follows:

Put put =
    Put.newBuilder()
        .namespace("ns")
        .table("tbl")
        .partitionKey(partitionKey)
        .clusteringKey(clusteringKey)
        .floatValue("c4", null)
        .doubleValue("c5", null)
        .build();

Delete operation

Delete is an operation to delete a record specified by a primary key.

You need to create a Delete object first, and then you can execute the object by using the storage.delete() method as follows:

// Create a `Delete` operation.
Key partitionKey = Key.ofInt("c1", 10);
Key clusteringKey = Key.of("c2", "aaa", "c3", 100L);

Delete delete =
    Delete.newBuilder()
        .namespace("ns")
        .table("tbl")
        .partitionKey(partitionKey)
        .clusteringKey(clusteringKey)
        .build();

// Execute the `Delete` operation.
storage.delete(delete);

Put and Delete with a condition

You can write arbitrary conditions (for example, a bank account balance must be equal to or more than zero) that you require an operation to meet before being executed by implementing logic that checks the conditions. Alternatively, you can write simple conditions in a mutation operation, such as Put and Delete.

When a Put or Delete operation includes a condition, the operation is executed only if the specified condition is met. If the condition is not met when the operation is executed, an exception called NoMutationException will be thrown.

Conditions for Put

In a Put operation in the Storage API, you can specify a condition that causes the Put operation to be executed only when the specified condition matches. This operation is like a compare-and-swap operation where the condition is compared and the update is performed atomically.

You can specify a condition in a Put operation as follows:

// Build a condition.
MutationCondition condition =
    ConditionBuilder.putIf(ConditionBuilder.column("c4").isEqualToFloat(0.0F))
        .and(ConditionBuilder.column("c5").isEqualToDouble(0.0))
        .build();

Put put =
    Put.newBuilder()
        .namespace("ns")
        .table("tbl")
        .partitionKey(partitionKey)
        .clusteringKey(clusteringKey)
        .floatValue("c4", 1.23F)
        .doubleValue("c5", 4.56)
        .condition(condition) // condition
        .build();

Other than the putIf condition, you can specify the putIfExists and putIfNotExists conditions as follows:

// Build a `putIfExists` condition.
MutationCondition putIfExistsCondition = ConditionBuilder.putIfExists();

// Build a `putIfNotExists` condition.
MutationCondition putIfNotExistsCondition = ConditionBuilder.putIfNotExists();
Conditions for Delete

Similar to a Put operation, you can specify a condition in a Delete operation in the Storage API.

You can specify a condition in a Delete operation as follows:

// Build a condition.
MutationCondition condition =
    ConditionBuilder.deleteIf(ConditionBuilder.column("c4").isEqualToFloat(0.0F))
        .and(ConditionBuilder.column("c5").isEqualToDouble(0.0))
        .build();

Delete delete =
    Delete.newBuilder()
        .namespace("ns")
        .table("tbl")
        .partitionKey(partitionKey)
        .clusteringKey(clusteringKey)
        .condition(condition)  // condition
        .build();

In addition to using the deleteIf condition, you can specify the deleteIfExists condition as follows:

// Build a `deleteIfExists` condition.
MutationCondition deleteIfExistsCondition = ConditionBuilder.deleteIfExists();

Mutate operation

Mutate is an operation to execute multiple mutations (Put and Delete operations) in a single partition.

You need to create mutation objects first, and then you can execute the objects by using the storage.mutate() method as follows:

// Create `Put` and `Delete` operations.
Key partitionKey = Key.ofInt("c1", 10);

Key clusteringKeyForPut = Key.of("c2", "aaa", "c3", 100L);

Put put =
    Put.newBuilder()
        .namespace("ns")
        .table("tbl")
        .partitionKey(partitionKey)
        .clusteringKey(clusteringKeyForPut)
        .floatValue("c4", 1.23F)
        .doubleValue("c5", 4.56)
        .build();

Key clusteringKeyForDelete = Key.of("c2", "bbb", "c3", 200L);

Delete delete =
    Delete.newBuilder()
        .namespace("ns")
        .table("tbl")
        .partitionKey(partitionKey)
        .clusteringKey(clusteringKeyForDelete)
        .build();

// Execute the operations.
storage.mutate(Arrays.asList(put, delete));

Note

A Mutate operation only accepts mutations for a single partition; otherwise, an exception will be thrown.

In addition, if you specify multiple conditions in a Mutate operation, the operation will be executed only when all the conditions match.